Beggar's Opera and its Sanskrit Wordplay
The infinitives are KU plus the main form: KUPENDA, "to like". Some verbs which start with a vowel have KW- at the beginning: KWENDA,"to go", and KWANZA, "to begin".
First, I will show the verbs in their positive forms; the negative forms will follow.
For humans, positive forms have three basic elements to them, in order:
1) positive pronoun; 2) positive verb tense marker/infix; 3) the verb root itself.
1) The positive pronouns are:
U, "you" (singular)
A, "he/she" ("it" comes later.)
M, "you" (plural)
WA, "they" (For humans and animals. I will deal with things later, below.)
2) Some of the verb tense markers are NA, present tense; LI, past tense; TA, future; ME, present perfect. Swahili also has other tenses, but I will not deal with them.
3) Then add the verb itself at the end. Here are examples of Swahili verbs. The three elements go together as one word, but I will separate them for demonstrational purposes.
NI NA PENDA, "I like"
U NA PENDA, "you (sing.) like"
A NA PENDA, "he/she likes"
TU NA PENDA, "we like"
M NA PENDA, "you (pl.) like"
WA NA PENDA, "they like"
PAST TENSE: All you have to do is substitute the past tense marker/infix, LI:
NILIPENDA, "I liked"
ULIPENDA, "you liked", etc.
FUTURE TENSE: Subsitute the future tense marker/infix, TA:
NITAPENDA, UTAPENDA, etc.
NIMEPENDA, "I have liked"; UMEPENDA, etc.
Now for the negative tenses, which have two or three elements, depending on the particular tense.
1) Negative pronouns/prefixes in same order as the positive ones (SI, HU, HA, HATU, HAM, HAWA);
2) Negative tense marker/infix (KU, past tense; TA, future; JA, present perfect; present tense has no marker, see below.)
3) The verb form itself.
In the present negative tense only, verbs ending in the letter a change into i, while other verbs ending in i or u do not change at all. There is no tense marker in the present negative:
Similarly, SIFAHAMU, SIISHI, etc.
PAST NEGATIVE:The tense marker/infix is -KU-:
SIKUPENDA, HUKUPENDA, etc.
The three elements are 1) the negative pronoun/prefix; 2) the negative future tense marker/infix -TA-; and the verb:
PRESENT PERFECT NEGATIVE: The three elements are 1) the negative pronoun; 2) the negative marker -JA-; 3) and the verb itself:
SIJAPENDA, HUJAPENDA, etc.
Now I will show how Swahili nouns work with verbs. First you need to know that nouns fall into various classes, "sort of" like the way that French, German, Latin, etc., nouns are masculine, feminine or neuter. Class One (singular) and Two (plural) are reserved for humans:
MTU, "person"; WATU, "persons"
MWAMERIKA, "American"; WAAMERIKA, "Americans" (the MW- occurs if the noun root starts with a vowel.)
Therefore the noun-verb relationship works thus: MTU ANAPENDA, "(the) person likes"; WATU WANAPENDA, "(the) persons like".
Classes 3 to 10 are reserved for things and animals. For the "most" part, there is little reason why any particular noun should belong to any particular class. They have different verb prefixes and work exactly the same way as shown above:
Class 3: MTI, "tree": MTI UNAPENDA, "tree likes" (or ULIPENDA, UTAPENDA, etc.)
Class 4: MITI, "trees": MITI INAPENDA, "trees like" (or ILIPENDA, ITAPENDA, etc.)
Classes 3 and 4 are also called the "tree classes" because they are reserved for types of trees: MCHUNGWA UNAPENDA, "orange tree likes"; MICHUNGWA INAPENDA, "orange trees like". See CHUNGWA, "orange", below.
Class 5: CHUNGWA, "orange": CHUNGWA LINAPENDA, "orange likes"
Class 6: MACHUNGWA, "oranges": MACHUNGWA YANAPENDA, "oranges like"
Class 7: KITU, "thing": KITU KINAPENDA, "thing likes"
Class 8: VITU, "things": VITU VINAPENDA, "things like"
Class 9: SIKU, "day": SIKU INAPENDA, "day likes"
Class 10: SIKU, "days": SIKU ZINAPENDA, "days like"
(Nouns in classes 9 and 10 tend to look identical. One must learn to distinguish between the singular and plural forms by various grammatical differences, as shown above.)
To create the negative verbs, use these:
Class 3: HAUPENDI, etc.
Class 4: HAIPENDI
Class 5: HALIPENDI
Class 6: HAYAPENDI
Class 7: HAKIPENDI
Class 8: HAVIPENDI
Class 9: HAIPENDI
Class 10: HAZIPENDI