The Shiva-Shakti Pattern
an unfinished manuscript based on principles of Shaivism. By Richard Stoney of Orleans, CA, which proposes a language pattern based on basic elements found in Shaivism, which is the worship of the Hindu god Shiva.
This is the result of lots of years' research from end of 1980's. However, it has come to a standstill due to lack of further information. What I need now is the fifty names of Shiva's shakti, as mentioned by a particular sect of Shaivism. Some are Gomukhi, Vartula^kshi, Guno^dari, etc. but there are still 35+ shakti remaining. So if you can obtain the names, please contact me. It is important to note that the pattern is not etymological in nature in the usual sense. It is more associative in nature.
I believe that the pattern detailed herein to be valid because I have used it to predict in advance certain associative aspects of Shiva.
So I will now predict some of the meanings of the unknown shaktis' names (not the names themselves): "horse"; "bushel"; "target"; "honeycomb"; "money paid as a tribute"; "pane of glass/mirror"; "knife/razor/stab";"goat"; "thin cork"; "quoit"; "kneecap"; "blade of grass/chaff"; "slice (of bread)"; "keyhole scutcheon"; "fragment/piece/split"; "hemp"; "move a boat backwards"; "bundle/tie". These meanings are in addition to any others already presented in the manuscript.
On page 1044 of Monier-Williams' A Sanskrit-English Dictionary (under s'akti, there is mention of 50 obscure shaktis of Shiva, about 15 of which are mentioned. Researchers are welcome to find those shakti and to compare the meanings of their names with the list in the preceding paragraph. I have been able to find that info. I dare you to prove me wrong, academia. Gopatha?

See Monier-Williams on page 1044 under s'akti for more lesser-known shaktis. There are still approximately 35 others unmentioned, ones which I have been unable to find out about.


The subject at hand deals with a language pattern based on Hindu principles, involving the Hindu god, Shiva (Auspicious"), and various goddesses known collectively as the shakti of Shiva. This pattern, the Shiva-Shakti Pattern, has two elements to it. The first element is a constant factor in which words will be very similar, sound-wise, to the name of Shiva (=Shiba in `Bengalese and Assamese, Indian languages which have no v-sound. Bengal and Assam were areas of major influence in Shaktism.) or one of his inflected forms: SHAIVA, SHAIVYA, or SHAIBYA., The last two are Hindu names meaning "cult of Shiva, auspicious" and "belonging to Shiva", respectively (THE PENGUIN BOOK OF HINDU NAMES, Maneka Gandhi, pp. 330, 329). In an identical vein, A DICTIONARY OF URDU, CLASSICAL HINDI AND ENGLISH mentions that the modern form of Shiva's name is sometimes written as SHIV or SHIB, often in compound-form: SHIV-PURI, "Shiva's city."
These are called "Shiva-words". All forms are to be considered the same as the word SHIVA. It is also important to note the resulting interchangeability between B and V. Such an occurrence is already well established in linguistics. There are bound to be slight deviations due to the passage of time and regional tendencies. One such distortion will occur from French which uses CH to create the sound of SH. Also, there appears to be a possible influence from Tamil in which Shiva's name, I understand, is written "CHIVA(N)", but pronounced "SHIVA(N)" due to its Sanskrit source.
The second factor is a variable one, involving the shaktis. The definitions of individual names of the shaktis will join with the Shiva-words. This occurrence is possible since A SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY states that the word SHAKTI has a secondary definition/usage: "signification of words" (Monier-Williams, p. 1044, under "S'AKTI "). The end-result is a hybrid, a union, in which the shakti of Shiva are also meanings of Shiva-words. Admittedly, in the cases of some shakti, there will also be a corresponding counterpart, male form of the word, which is a reference to Shiva. But in all cases, there will definitely be a female shakti represented.


Interestingly enough, there is a story depicting the above information: Shiva goes out begging for food, but is unable to procure any, so he goes home. His wife, Parvati, then starts leaving with the kids in disgust, but the sage Narada urges that she beg for food. She does so and returns with food, and it is for this reason that she is also known as Annapurna. Shiva is so grateful that he violently hugs her and they merge into one entity, Ardhanarishvara, "Androgynous Lord"(Wendy Doniger O'Flaherty, ASCETICISM AND EROTICISM IN THE MYTHOLOGY OF SIVA, p. 234-5). .The result is half-Shiva, half-shakti," that is, "half-Shiva/SHIBA, half-full-of-Food".

Kundalini is a shakti of Shiva from KUNDALA, "coil of rope" (cf. Eng. SHEAVE, "layer of a coil of rope". Akin to SHIVE and SHIVER < Old Saxon SCIVA, OHG. SCIBA, Ger. SCHEIBE.
More on Kundalini.
Kundalini is associated with creation and viewed as a thin thread (THE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF RELIGION, p. 403), perhaps related to the following: "In the southern school [of Shaivism], the workings of Shiva and the shakti are figuratively illustrated by the analogy of the reproductive organism of a lotus, where the stamens of the lotus are compared to the lord and pistil to the shakti-tattva." (ENCYCLOPEDIA OF RELIGION AND ETHICS, vol. XI, James Hastings, ed. , p. 94). (cf. Eng. CHIVE/SHIVE/CHIEVE/CHYVE, "threadlike stamens and pistils, sometimes of the saffron crocus".

Vartula^kshi is a shakti (Monier-Williams, p. 1044, under S'AKTI)and may mean: VARTULA, "round" (THE PENGUIN BOOK OF HINDU NAMES, p.444) + female form of AKSHA, which means:
"wheel" (cf. Eng. SHEAVE/SHIVE/SHIVER, "wheel having a groove in circumference to receive a cord passing over it; also a wheel with a groove in the circumference to enable it to run on a bar or rail; pulley" < AS. SCIVA, OHG. SCIBA, Ger. SCHEIBE, same as for Kundalini. Also: Russian SHAIBA, "wheel"). "axle, axis" ( Ger. SCHEIBEN, "spin on an axis"). "car, cart" (Ger. SHIEB[E]KARREN, "wheelbarrow"; "beam of a balance" (Eng. SHEAVEBLOCK) "string which holds the pivot of a beam" (possibly a combination of #1 and #4).
It may instead mean "round eye."

Shiva is known as Yogeshvara, "Yoga Lord", and is to be respected to the highest. People who practice yoga lead fuller lives, are in better health and live longer. Yoga, "Union", attempts to join oneself with the forces of Creation and Life.

These are the three main elements to this essay:
--Siva, a Slavic goddess. Her name means "living, being, existing." She is is also known as Siwa, pronounced "sheeva" in modern Polish; she was worshipped in Poland, Czechoslavakia, East Germany. Also known as Russian Zhiva/Z'iva, Polabi Zhywie and Slovak Zivena. Even other forms of her name are Sivve, Shiwa, Sieba, Syeba, Siba and Dsiva (Znayenko, pp. 75, 220).
With regards to the etymology of her name, "some scholars associate the name with Dlugosz's Zywye, others with the Indian SHIWA, [sic] god of life, still others with SIVA, 'grey'".
--Bhavani, Hindu goddess. Her name means "being, existence" < Skt. BHAVA < BHU, "to live, be, exist".
--Shiva, "Auspicious" Hindu god; third member of the Hindu triad with Brahma and Vishnu. He is aso known as Ardhanarishvara, "Androgynous Lord", who is half-Shiva, half-female/half-shakti.
The purpose of this article is to point out the close similarities between Bhavani and Siva. But here is the critical, compelling element/factor joining the two:
1) Bhavani is one of Shiva's Shakti.
2) The Sanskrit word shakti means "power", but it can also be used as "the meaning of words." (Monier-Williams, p. 1044)
3) Therefore as Shakti of Shiva, Bhavani has the meaning of Siva.

Now I will show the similarities between Bhavani and Siva.

Both Siva and Bhavani are goddesses of life, offspring production and fertility.

There is another similarity between Siva and Bhavani: "In pagan worship…Friday was sacred to the goddess [Siva] of the Western Slavs." (Hubbs, p. 117). There are stories of the twelve Fridays, which "provided protection from some specific evil--fire, sickness, flood, and so forth" (Ibid). In the case of Bhavani, she is known as Sankata Devi, "Goddess of Dangers", for she is the one who vanquishes dangers for her devotees with celebrations taking place on Fridays in Benares". (Eck, pp. 168-9)

In Slovakia, the equivalent to Siva is life-goddess Zivena, who is counterposed with chief god Praboh (Jones and Pennick, p. 187). His name means "(original) primitive god" (Konus, p. 906). Compare these interrelated Sanskrit words:
PRA- (prefix): "before, in front", and therefore, "first, original"; BHU, #1 BHU', #2 BHU': "becoming, being, produced, live". All are the root words of BHAVA/BHAVANI
---PRA-BHU*, "excelling, powerful, lord", a name of Shiva. The name itself means "before-living", in other words, "original God". It obtains the concept of "excelling, powerful" exactly in the same way that Eng. PRIME implies "the best".
---PRA-BHU/PRA-[root]BHU-, -BHAVATI, "originate from, be powerful/master."
---PRA-BHAVA*, "excelling, production, origin, Creator ("might, power"=PRA-BHAVA) (Monier-Williams).

A picture of Siva shows her with a sun-disk behind her head (admittedly, not an unusual occurrence for ancient deities). And there is mention of Siwa/Syuna, a goddess of the Polabi (Hastings, vol. 11, p. 594). According to one source, etymology about this word is confusing at best, but consider [?] Skt. SYUNA, "ray of light, sun."

The following deals with Zhiva: "..…There persisted another religious rite more closely related to Procopius's account of the veneration of nymphs. This religion appears to have had no organized priesthood. It revolved around the goddess called Zhiva by the Elbe Slavs. The ceremonies were performed by the whole community in the depths of the forests [like the Baiga and Savaras of Northern India, who believe fully in forest spirits. (Hastings, vol. 2, p. 333; vol. 7, p. 214}] and in places where land and water met. (Hubbs, pp.12-13). "Chroniclers, who confirm Procopius's earlier observations, refer to the river, lake, and forest nymphs as BEREGINY." (from BEREGINA, "earth, shore"). BEREGINY represent the fertility goddesses (Ibid, pp.14-15).

The role of diety of guardianship/family/ household is shared by Bhavani, Prabha and the BEREGINY (Kinsley, pp. 109 and 110; Ann and Imel. p. 291; Hubbs, p. 13).

In a similar vein, Shiva-Bhava is the "presiding diety of the waters" (Gupta, p.15). Banaras/Benares, known as Shiva's City, is referred to as the center of Earth, "this shore," on the Ganges River and is an embodiment of the goddess Kashi ("shining, sun". Cf. Hebrew names Ziva or Zivah, ("shining, radiant"). Kashi is a counterpart to Bhavani and is a shakti of Shiva (Eck, pp.159, 418). Kashi is said to sit above the earth as a crossing place between earth and the "far shore" of the transcendant Brahman. (Eck, pp. 6, 35). It is said that, when one dies, Shiva whispers the "ferryboat mantra", or mantra of the crossing (Eck, p. 331). This compares with Slavic concepts of the dead traveling across an ocean with a conductor to guide the deceased. Likewise, the Slavic Siva is connected with the life/death cycle. (Ann and Imel, p. 73).

Compare Slavic SHIVAYA/ZHIVAYA VODA (various sources give different spellings), "living water", which brings dead people back to life; and MERTVAYA VODA, "dying water", which makes a living person dead (Professor A. Babyonyshev, email). The "dying water" heals all wounds on the corpse of the deceased, and then the sprinkling of "living water" bring it to life.

And in the Kanjar tribe, Bhavani is worshipped along with the goddess Prabha, "light" (Hastings, vol. 7, p.653). This word is associated with a sun-disk (Monier-Williams, p. 683). The Kanjar use a protector-exorcist called a SYAANAA ("wise one") to propitiate bad spirits (Hastings, vol. 7, p. 653). Neither the Kanjar nor the followers of Siva had any formal priesthood (Hubbs, pp. 13, 14; Hastings, vol. 7, p. 652).

There is a tale in which Zhiva falls in love with Dazhdbog, "the god who gives well-being" (Gutkin). Like Shiva, he is god of prosperity and wealth. (Jobes, vol. 1, p. 420; Smith, p.158). In the end, they "accept the gold wreath and get married. So that is how Russians appeared, and that's why they are called his grandchildren". (Naoumov) Similarly, "in the Chhattisgarh District, the Baiga worship centers around the Dulha Deo, the deified bridegroom god and Devi, the Mother-Goddess, in her manifestation as Bhavani" (Hastings, vol. 2, p. 333).

Dazhdbog is the third member of the Kievan pantheon, while Shiva occupies the same position in the Hindu triad. And there is a picture which shows, in order from the left, Prono, Ridegast and Siva.

In some mythology, Slav Svarog is the supreme god, and since he created the living Universe (Naoumov), he could be considered the "original god". He had a son, Perun, who then had a son, Dazhdbog. That would make Dazhdbog the grandson of the Original God. However, according to one mythology, Perun is top god, so that would make Dazhdbog "Son of the Original God". Similarly in another myth, "in old chronicles, Daz^bog is termed Czar Sun and Son of Svarog" This would make him the son of the Original God who is married to Zhiva/Siva (MYTHOLOGY OF ALL RACES, vol. 3, p.297). Meanwhile on the Hindu side of the equation, Bhavani is worshipped by the Baiga with Narayan Deo (Hastings, p. 333)(cf. Skt. Narayana, "son of the original god" from Skt. NARA, "primeval Man or eternal Spirit pervading the Universe"; he is always associated with Na'ra'yana. Both are considered as gods [Monier-Williams, pp. 528-9, 536]). He is a sun-god, like Dazhdbog, but I am not aware of whether he is actually married to Bhavani.

There is mention of a Polish god, Zivalo (Hastings, vol. XI, p. 593). Could he be a male counterpart to Siva, just as Bhava corresponds to Bhavani?

Here is some information about Bhavani in her role as Annapurna: "On the eleventh day of each fortnight, when the giving of alms is especially prescribed, one will hear [elderly people] at the doors of Banaras households, calling to the mother of the house..., "Mother, give me food." (Eck, p. 161). Similarly, Naumov explains the meaning of Dazhdbog's name: "There is one version of Yuri Miroliubov that I personally support. The word is a complex conglomerate of the two. Listen: Dazhdbog--->Dazhdbo--->Dai Bo--->Dai Bog. The final two are in English 'Give me, God'". The connection between Bhavani and Dazhdbog is weak in this case, but I am including it just for the record.

Also, the Kanjar wandered around in gangs, supporting themselves by theft and highway robbery (Hastings, vol. 7, p. 652). Bhavani was also worshipped by The Thugs of India. The Thugs were assassins and robbers, whose victims were "always taken unawares from behind". They formed their own organizations and held responsible positions in government (Walker, vol. 2, pp.501-2). (cf. Slang SHIEVER, "double-crosser". Quote: "The worst thing you can call a crook is a shiever"; Ger. SCHIEBERTUM and SCHIEBUNG, "corruption, graft, dirty politicians"; Ger. SCHIEBEN, "act corruptly"; CHIVE-FENCER, "murder-protector" (Wentworth and Flexner, p. 466) or "criminal-protector" (Partridge, p. 149); CHIVING-LAY, "robbing the rear of a coach by cutting" (this final word may actually derived from CHIV/SHIV, "knife.").

Interestingly enough, the Polabi worshipped a goddess named Svantovit on the island of Rugen/Rungen in the Baltic, where there is a mention of armed military men who were pirates. There is a statue of Svantovit which mirrors that of a Tree of Life goddess found in northern Russia and which is said t be similar to statues of Scythians (=ancient Iranians). This Shiva-like statue has four faces, is phallic-like, has females breasts on one side, and is associated with fertility and warrior functions. (Hubbs, p. 12). The high priest had long hair, longer than was customary for the day (Hastings, vol. XI, p. 593), while Shiva has hair that is dishevelled/shieveld (see Oxford English Dictionary). According to (under "Slavic"), Dazhdbog was worshipped as Svantovit during harvest. There have been various interpretations of Svantovit's name, the most common being "Holy Light". But consider Skt. SV-ANTA, "auspicious"; Slavic -OVIT, "son of." Son of Auspicious?

According to at least one source, Slavs are the only people among the European nations with mythology based on Indo-European and Indo-Iranian beliefs. They are believed to be of Indo-European stock, so there are many similarities between Hindu and early Slavic worlds: practice of cremation and belief in reincarnation; karma, in which like produces like; existence of vampires, phallic dieties plus polycephalous gods in their mythologies; having the sun represented by Sanskrit SU'RYA and Slavic ZORYA; and the use of waving iron to drive away demons. Also, women played an important part in religious ceremonies.

Ann, Martha, and Imel, Dorothy Myers. GODDESSES OF THE WORLD
Babyonyshev, A, professor. Email)
Gutkin, Irina, professor. Email
Hubbs, Joanna. MOTHER RUSSIA
Jones, Prudence, and Pennick, Nigel. A HISTORY OF PAGAN EUROPE
Walker, Benjamin. THE HINDU WORLD


Mukta-Keshi, shakti of Shiva, "dishevelled hair" (cf. Eng. SHEVELLED/ SHIEVELD, old forms of DISHEVELLED < Fr. DESCHEVELER, "disarrange the hair". Compare Croatian SHIVETA, "mat, hassock, plaited hair" (Shiva has matted hair);
Ukrainian SHEVELYURA, "thick hair, chevelure". Wigs of olden days were made of densely matted material.

Vikrita-mukhi is a shakti: VIKRITA, "deformed, distorted, misshapen" + MUKHII, "mouth, face" (cf. Eng. SHEVEL-MOUTH and Sc. SHAIVLEMOOT, "distorted mouth".
More on Shiva's body:
Modern German SCHIEFE, "crookedness", akin to such earlier, related words SCHEVE, SCHEWE, SCHEIWE, SCHEIV, SCHEIB, and SCHIEB < roots *SKAIBA and *SKAIFA (Antje Casaretto of Institut Fur Sprachwissenschaft of Cologne University; Kluge and Jacob Grimm).
Anglo-Saxon SCEAF-FOT, "twisted, curved, bent, warped foot" and "splay-foot", a medical condition marked by having the foot turned outward, not straight. Shiva's foot is described as being curved in the middle with the toes bent down. (< Sans. KUN~CITA, "bent, curved, crooked"). His heel is also raised. Consider Ger. SCHIEF, which can also be used to imply "slant"; Turkish S[H]IV/S[H]EV, "bevel"; Eng. SHEVELING-HEELED, "twisted, distorted, downtrodden heel". Shiva also walks with a swagger, literally with the leg turned out. Cf. Eng. SHEVEL, "walk crookedly"; Ukr. SHEVERNOGII*, "bowlegged", that is, with the leg turned outward. See THE DANCE OF SIVA by David Smith on pp. 8 and 164 for a description of his feet.
Antje also mentions names of people circa 1300: Joh. Schefvot, Willeke Scheve and Schevenacke. And towns like Scheweling and Scheveling. Finally, Antje says that the "crooked" words originally denoted a person with a distorted or twisted body: Der SCHIEFGEWACHSENE.

Kameshvari: "Goddess of love and sex" (Cf. SHEVA, "coitus" < some Slavic language. I lost that info in a computer malfunction; Eng. Slang CHIVALRY/CHIVARL[E]Y, "coitus"; and perhaps Bulg. SHAI*BA, which means many things, including "(screw) nut" and "(female) screw." One source says the last example may pertain to sex, perhaps, but is not certain. Also: Uzbekistani and Adzerbaijani SEV, "(non-sexual) love".
Of relevance is QUOIT < COITE (=Eng. SHIVE < OS. SCIVA). One form of the word involves a coil of rope (See Kundalini) or metal and throwing it over a stake, like the American game of horseshoes. This mimics a pole like linga (penis) surrounded a YONII (vulva) at the base, an obvious sexual connection. OXFORD ENGLISH DICTIONARY admits uncertainty as to etymology except to say there is a French connection. I would suggest French COI"T, "coitus". This concept is backed up by the fact that QUOIT later means "buttocks" (cf. "piece of ass")


THE SHIVERS, "horror". (Bhairavi, Bhairava, the Bhairavas). Quote: "Bhairavi, terror or the power to cause terror".


Modern Finnish SIEVA", "pretty" (=Sundari). Finnish has no SH-sound.


Modern Finnish SIVEA, "chaste" (=faithful Sati). She immolated herself in protest because her father Daksha hated Shiva.

Uma, daughter of Daksha, is a reincarnation of Sati. A SANSKRIT DICTIONARY says her name may mean "Oh, don't" but seems not totally certain. Primary definition offered is "flax". (cf. Eng. SHEAVE, "part of flax", and SHIVE, "refuse of flax". Also: Ger. SCHEBE (Ox. Eng. Dict, vol. 15, col 1 p. 209). I remember that Uma was described as being thin, an apt description of the scrawny flax plant.


Vach ("speech") is a daughter of Daksha and identified with Uma. (cf. Turkish S[H]IVE, "pronunciation, accent" and S[H]IFAH-EN, "verbally"; Japanese SHIWA, "lip language"; Ukrainian SHEVELGTI (SP?), "lisp". Eng. SHIVAREE, "greet [talk to?] with a shivaree", can be dissected into SHIVER-REE:
a) RI, "interjection of laughter". SHIVAREE is associated with celebration.
b) "sound reiterated in stammer". Quote: "The musicians letting off at each repetition of the demand peals of shiver-ree" )
#2 RII, "interjection of terror"; #3 RII, "Bhairava". See section of THE SHIVERS. "She turned on all the horrors of The Battle of Prague, that venerable shivaree and waded chin-deep into the blood of the dead". Another quote mentions the dreaded old man.
#1 RI or RII, "dissolve" and #2 RI, "property". Quote about SHIVAREE, "much official talk": "Next came the usual shivaree about such and such case [legal] and what would be taken and so on." (A DICT. OF SLANG. AND UNCONVENTIONAL ENGLISH, 7th ed. P. 759).
Vach does not seem to be involved in all cases. Perhaps Bhairavi? Quotes are found under SHIVAREE in OXFORD ENGLISH DICTIONARY.


Lalita ("amorous, playing, wished for, desired"): Turk. S(H)EVK, "longing desire"; Secondary definitions are:
"trembling" (cf. Eng. SHIVER < CHYVER, "tremble due to emotions". I have run into examples when she is distraught, but have none of trembling. "tremulous" (cf. Eng. SHIVERING, "tremulous" [of sound and music]. She is associated with music and metres. (A SANSKRIT DICTIONARY). Quote: "16.. [year] And closing up his layes, like a full quire, a shivering consort plays" (OXFORD ENGLISH DICTIONARY). Does this quote refer to her?


Hindu philosophy accepts all the world's religions as viable substitutes to Hinduism. They understand that some people need to follow different paths. They, therefore, accept all cultures.


Rudrani < RUDRA or Raudri, "pertaining to Rudra," who is known as the Howler, Roarer: ". Cf. Hung. S[H]IVALKODIK, "scream" (various sources give various spellings); Slovak S(H)IBAVEC, "stentor".

RAGINI, "red", is a possible shakti. Quote: An alternate derivation from postulated root *RUD, meaning "be red", can be connected with a proposed derivation for the name SHIVA with a Dravidian word meaning "red". (ENCYCLOPEDIA OF RELIGION, Mircea Eliade, p. 8, vol. 13).

Parvati, "She-of-the-mountains": PAARVATII appears to be the feminine form of PAARVATA < PARVATA, "knotty, rugged (of mountains); mountain range, rock fragment, the number 7." (CF. Heb. SHIVAH, "seven"; Eng. SHIVER, "rock fragment").


Sita is best known for her part in RAMAYANA, which is actually of Vishnu/Krishna mythology. But according to other mythologies, she is Uma, a shakti of Shiva (q.v.). SIITAA means "furrow". Compare Polish SKIBA, "furrow". However, it is pronounced "skeeba", so I may be stretching things too much. But it is important to note that SKIBA also means "slice", which has cognates Nor. SKIVE, Ger. SCHEIBE, Eng SHEAVE/SHIVE, "slice (of bread" < O.S. SCIVA, OHG. SCIBA.
From a passage about the linga: "Sex symbolism has long been associated with husbandry and the implements connected with it. The Sanskrit word for plough is LAANGULA (LAANGALA from another source), derived from LAK, denoting both a digging implement and phallus. The female pudenda is similarly associated with ploughing and identified with the furrow as personified linguistically by Sita" (less correctly written S[H]IITAA). Sita is represented by a plowshare (HARPER'S DICTIONARY OF HINDUISM, Margaret and James Stutley, p. 278). She was created when her father Janaka was plowing a field. (IBID, p. 162). He emblazoned a plow on his standard in her honor (THE HINDU WORLD, vol. 1, Benjamin Walker, p. 497).
The reasons for these associations stem from Hindus, views of the Mother Earth as a womb which is impregnated by the male sun/sky using rain as sperm. The furrow/vagina represents the opening/parting into the womb. Compare English SHIVER, "breastplate of a plow," akin to SHEAVE and SHIVE < OS. SCIVA; Eng. SHEAT(H), "plow bar connecting the beam and sole in front". Quote: "According to the position of the sheath, the earth of the furrow is turned over more suddenly" (OED, vol. XV, p. 207).
The words SIITAA and SHIITAA change into SAITA and SHAITA, "worshipper of Sita". SIITAA can also used to denote a parting of the hair or vagina (Cornelia Dimmitt, "Sita: Fertility Goddess and Sakti, in THE DIVINE CONSORT, J.S. Hawley and D.M. Wulff, eds., p. 211 ). Consider German SCHEITELN, "to part (hair)"; SCHEITEL, "parting of hair"; SCHEIDE, parting, vagina", akin to M.E. SCHEDE/SCHETE < O.E. SCEATH, Also "vagina".

Mohini’, "confusing", may be a shakti. She joined sexually with Shiva in the story about Churning of the Waters/Ocean. CF. Ukrainian SHE’VPATISYA, "become confused".

Vi-raja, "free of dust, cleansed from sin" (cf. Finnish SIIVO, "decent" and SIIVOTA, "clean"; Estonian SIIVUS/SIIVSA, "clean, decent"). Finnish has no SH-sound.


1. SARA, "fluid, liquid".
2. SAARASVATAA, "relating to Sarasvati".
3. SARASA (fr. SARAS) "pertaining to lake, water".
4. SARAS, "anything fluid, flowing, lake, SHEET OF WATER; speech (a meaning given to account for SARAS-VATII".
5. SARASVAT, "full of lakes, juicy, sapid". (cf. Pol. SZYBA, "sheet of water; Port. SEIVA, "sap, blood"; Rom. SEVA, "sap".


Hinduism believes the world is in a state of metamorphosis toward the obtainment of complete harmony.


Kali, "black, dark blue" (cf. Old Slavic SIVU [sheevuh"], "black, dark blue".)



Canda, "wrathful, cruel". (cf. Port. SEVO/SEVA, "cruel"). Portuguese has no SH-sound. She is definitely a shakti.
Munda, "shaved", is a shakti. Shiva fought Canda and Munda and joined them into one creature, Camunda (no definition). Cf. Eng. SHAVE < OE. SCEAFA/SCEABA/SCAEBA; Eng./Nor. SKIVE, "shave (leather)", of Scandinavian origin.


CHHINNA-MASTA : CHHINNAA, "cut off, divided" + MASTA, "head". (cf. It. SCEVERARE, "to cut off, sever" or SHIVER, "split, " and Fr.-Eng. CHEVAGE/CHIEVAGE/CHIEF, "head"; Perhaps: Bulg. SHAIBA, "head" (source is not yet determined as being reliable).


Shiva himself represents "fortunate, lucky, welfare, kind, benevolent, final emancipation". Compare definitions of Fr.-Eng. CHEVE/CHIEVE or Fr.-Eng. CHEVAGE/CHIEVAGE, CHIVALRY. All deal with welfare, luck, prosperity, kindness, success, reaching an end. The names of a few shakti also have this definition.


Representing the Ganges River, Ganga means "swift-goer". Compare Hung. S[H]EBES[H], "rapid"; and Slovak S[H]IBAT', "speed by" (train) and Estonian SIVA, "quickly". Conceivably, the first two could derive from Sans. SHIIBHYA, "rapid", a name for Shiva, but SIVA is closer to Eng. CHIVAN/CHIVEN (from French), as in PLAY THE CHIVAN, "run away quickly" This is derived from the action of the chub, a shy fish which runs away quickly and hides in holes. Perhaps it is more than coincidence that the only "fish" phrase mentioned in A SANSKRIT DICTIONARY in regards to GAN'GAA is GAN' 'GAA-TEYA, "going in the Ganges", a reference to shrimp. While not related to the chub by modern taxonomy standards, shrimp will make violent,quick movements, sometimes jumping out of the water, then burying themselves in the sand. (cf. Eng. CHEVY/CHIVVY, "run fast").


Shanti, "peace, alleviation of pain". Cf. Turk. S[H]IFA, "restoraton of health".



Miscellaneous concepts:
SHIVA JYOTIS, "Shiva-light", the fire, is considered a linga of Shiva. JYOTII can also refer to sunlight, so consider ENG. SHIVELIGHT, a "sliver of light". For the sake of this paper, the word SLIVER is interpreted as a small part of a whole: There is "a story [about the jyotir-linga] of ascendancy that is very important in Kashi [Benares] lore: the Famous myth in which Shiva's linga splits open the earth as a fiery column of light. The [resulting] shaft is flanked by Brahma on the one side, and Lord Vishnu on the other, both kneeling in reverence upon their divine lotus blossoms. The shaft, with flames shooting from its sides, has been broken" (Eck, p. 70). There are "twelve places where the linga…shone forth in a fiery column of light [all in Kashi/Benares]; the sixty-eight places where Shiva's lingas are said to have emerged from the earth" (IBID, p. 38). There are several temples in Benares, one of which is three feet underground with only enough room for one worshipper and a stone linga (IBID, p. 114).
The light linga is the supreme "partless" reality, out of which Shiva may sometimes appear in bodily form as a "partial" reality (IBID, p. 107). At one point, "Shiva vowed that this [large] unfathomable linga would become small so that the people might have it as an emblem for their worship"

Garlic is considered an auspicious sign, a form of SVASTIKA (A SANSKRIT DICTIONARY). Cf. CHIVE/SHIVE and CHIBE < N. Fr. CHIVE, also known as CIBOULETTE. CHIVE, like garlic, is a member of the Allium genus and also known as Wild Garlic (OXFORD ENGLISH DICTIONARY). In some countries, red string or thread were tied around garlic and seems similar to Hindu thread ceremonies involving the tying of red thread around the wrist.

When one of Brahma;s five heads insulted Sarasvati, Shiva cut it off. Since he was guilty of murder, the resulting skull stuck fast to Shiva's hand, and he was forced to wander around for 12 years as the naked/half-naked beggar, Bhikshatana, "Wandering-for-Alms". "). There is some mythology in which Parvati’says to Shiva, "You went naked into the Pine Forest and seduced the wives of the sages on the pretext of begging. And when you had gone, they gave you great honor. The sages there caused your loincloth to fall…." (ASCETICISM AND EROTICISM IN THE MYTHOLOGY OF SIVA, Wendy Doniger O'Flaherty, p. 174).` (Cf. Eng. SHIVERING JEMMY, "the name given by street folk to any cadger who exposes himself half-naked on a cold day to obtain alms". Could this term be divided thus: Shiva + Hindi-Urdu JIM or JIMI=JEM-, "like", (adverb, conjunction), that is, "like Shiva"?

Guno^dari, "tied, string"? Cf. Eng. SHEAVE/SHEAF/SCEABAS, "harvest/tied bundle of grain". Cf. perhaps J. SHIBARU, "tie with cords." It is perhaps important to note that a picture of Z^iva/Siva (THE MYTHOLOGY OF ALL RACES, vol. 3, opposite p. 288) shows her holding a bundle of grain, a sheaf. Compare the above with the Nordic-Danish (perhaps mythical) figure known as Scef/Sceaf and, according to AN ANGLO-SAXON DICTIONARY, Sceafa, "sheaf". This word is akin to such Anglo-Germanic words as SCEAFAS, SCEABAS, SCHEIFF, SHEIVE and SHEVE. He, too, is equated with fertility (Gertrude Jobes, DICTIONARY OF MYTHOLOGY, FOLKLORE AND SYMBOLS, p. 149).

Ardha-Keshi, "half/halved/split-hair? (cf. Finnish SAIVARRELLA", defined as "split-hair; however, this refers to petty arguing and not the condition of hair. Sources from Finnish universities say the base-word is SAIVAR, "nit", so the implication is "nit-picking". Ardha-Keshi may also refer to parting of the hair. More information on the mythology is needed to understand any relationships

Lola^kshi, "woman with a rolling eye": LOLA, "moving, rolling hither and thither, back and forth, inconstant". (cf. Ger, SCHIEBER, "slide-bolt"; It. SCIVOLO and Nor. SKYVE, both "slide". Perhaps: J. SHIBORI-BEN, "throttle valve": BEN means "valve", so I am assuming that we have something which goes back and forth like a carbeuretor slide. Perhaps of relevance are German SCHIEBEN and Nor. SKIBBE, "shift", so Eng. consider Eng.SHIFT, SHIFTY-EYED, SHIFT-GOT [?] ). Also: AS. SCEAWIAN, "observe, eye"?

DIIRGHA-GHONAA: "extended nose"? GHONAA can also refer to a plant that makes people sneeze. I understand that in a dialect of India, the name of Shiva actually means "he sneezed". Also: Ukrainian SHIBATI V NIS (SP?), "to induce sneezing by tickling the nose".