More Sanskrit Puns in Gulliver's Travels

As always, my thanks to Sunder  Hattangadi of Battle Creek, Michigan.



      1-5-9: Gulliver is woken up at midnight  by the shouts of the populace: BURGLUM. He is entreated to come immediately to put out a palace fire caused by a careless maid. He gets up instantly. While rushing to the fire, Gulliver makes a side-step to avoid hurting one of the small people (=reluctant to injure someone). When he arrives at the fire, Gulliver is in  turmoil as the scene seems totally deplorable and desperate.

1) BURGLUM: Cf. Skt. root BHUR, "to move quickly; to flicker (as a fire)"; root GLAI, "to feel reluctance; injure, cause to perish; be hard on someone (=the maid); exhaust; to make desponding or cast down"; LUMB, “torment”. (Don't ask me why the Skt. words have such widely-varying definitions.)      


      2-1-1+2: There are lots of italicized words in this small section, so I will get a few things out of the way.
1) DOWNS: I do not know. 
2) They start out on the 20th of JUNE: Cf. Skt. JHUNI, "voice boding bad luck, evil omen". To the equation I might add JUN, "bind" because the commander is "bound for SURAT".
2-1-1: " the ADVENTURE, Capt. JOHN NICHOLAS, a CORNISH man, Commander, bound for SURAT. We had a very prosperous Gale till we arrived at the CAPE of GOOD-HOPE, where we landed for fresh water, but discovering a Leak, we unshipped our Goods, and winter'd there. For the Captain falling sick of an Ague, we could not leave the CAPE till the end of MARCH. We then set sail, and had a good Voyage till we passed the STREIGHTS of MADAGASCAR; but having got Northward of that Island, and to about five Degrees South Latitude, the winds, which in those Seas are observed to blow a constant equal Gale between the North and West from the beginning of DECEMBER to the beginning of MAY, on the 19th of APRIL began to blow to blow with much greater Violence, and more Westerly than usual, continuing so for twently Days   together, during which time we were driven a little to the East of the MOLUCCA, Islands, and about three Degrees Northward of the Line, as our Captain found by an Observation he took the 2d of MAY, at which time the Wind ceased, and it was a perfect Calm, wherein I was not a little rejoyced. But he being a Man well experienc'd in the Navigation of those Seas, bid us all prepare against a storm, which accordingly happened the Day following: For a Southern Wind, called the Southern MONSOON, began to set in."
: MA, "first person pronoun", that is,  "I"; AARCHH, "fall into calamity".
: SUU, "set in motion/start out, impel violently"; SUU, "good"; SURAA, "water"; SUH, "rejoice"; SUURA, "Soma juice"; SUURI, "course"; RAATA, "given";  RAA/RATNA, "goods"; AT, "roam about"; AT, "go continuously";
5) MAY
: MAA, "not"; MAH, "rejoice"; MAA, "measure across, traverse";  AY, "go"; AAYA, "arrival, a coming near something".

6) MADAGASCAR:: "MAD, "first person singular=I"; AD-DHAA, "in this manner"; AA-DAA, "take as drink"; MADA, "act of rejoicing"; GAA, "come near" (the island); AS', "arrive at"; AS, "cease, have an end": S'CAR, "come near"; CAR, "wander about".  MADAGASCAR repeats in 2-1-
: MAHA, "mighty, strong, abundant"; SO, "very"; UNNA, "wet". Again wet can refer to  a detrimental rain, just like the monsoons, according to Oxford English Dictionary.

8) MOLUCCA: MO, "measure (distance), measure across=traverse"; LUU, "gather"; UKSH, "water  UC, "delight in, rejoice"; UCCA, "violent"; CA, "moving to and fro (="here and there"). To this equation I am adding MAULA, "orignal inhabitant" (=”Inhabitants” and the creature living on an island in 2-1-4); UKHA, "a vessel (for holding water, food), mentioned in 2-1-4.
: There is a storm in 2-1-1+2, one in which all hell breaks loose. The sailors have to do certain things to keep the ship under control:  AP, "water, air"; AAP, “intermediate region, the Waters considered as divinities”; AAP, “suffer,  reach an end”; PRII, "fill with wind, blow": PRI, "be busy/active"; PRI, “keep alive" (no one dies); IL, "cast, become quiet". The word cast can imply the action of taking down (APA="down") something: "...the Sail was split, and we hawl'd down the Yard...We would not get down our Top-mast..." Then the storm eventually stops.
10) CAPE
: CAY, "observe”; CA, "moving to and fro" (="here and there"); AP, "the intermediate region"; AAP, "arrive at, come to and end".
: GO, "a goer"; ODHA, "brought near"; OPA, "near".
: CUURNA, "minute, small"; NISH, "sprinkle". Whether this refers jokingly to the storm or the relatively smaller leak is up to the reader's imagination. I could also add CULU, "handful of water".
13) JOHN
: In 2-1-2, there is a big storm at sea. Cf. Skt. JAHNU, "name of an ancient king and sage. The Ganges, whe brought down from heaven by Bhagii-ratha's austerities, was forced to flow over the earth and to follow him to the ocean and thence to the lower regions in order to water the ashes of Sagara's sons; in its course it inundated the sacrificial grounds of Jahnu..." (source: Monier-Williams)
NIICHA, "dwarfish", implying "small"; OLA, "wet", a reference to the leak. The word wet can be used as a noun which refers to water, according to Oxford English Dictionary.

15) ADVENTURE: This may be a sloppy, disjointed reference to items and events found in 2-1-4: ADD and VEN, both of which mean "discern"  (="observed, saw"); VENA, "name of  a river" (="River"); VENU, "bamboo". Bamboo is a member of the Grass Family, and there are mentions of grass, hay, barley, corn; TUR, "run fast" (="ran, fast"). It is possible that ADVENTURE was just italicized because doing is the proper way to punctuate the name of a ship.

16)   DECEMBER, STREIGHTS: I could not figure these out. Other languages may be involved.




    2-1-3: "During this Storm, which was followed by a strong Wind West South-west, we were carried by my Computation,about five hundred Leagues to the East, so that the oldest Sailor on Board could not tell in what part of the World we were. Our Provisions held out well, our Ship was staunch, and our Crew all in good Health; but we lay in the utmost Distress for Water. We thought it best to hold on the same Course, rather than turn Northerly, which might have brought us to the North-west parts of Great TARTARY, and into the frozen Sea."
1) Cf. Skt. roots TARA, "carrying across, passage, ship". The word TARA used in Hindu philosophy to refer to the transportation of the dead to the “other shore” of Death, using a boat. This also occurs in Greek and Slavic mythologies. TARA is akin to TARAS, "strength"; ARTH, "comment on, tell"; ARTHA, "needing anything"; AAR, "obtain, bring, fall into misfortune"; RII, "warding off".

          2-1-6: "Scared and confounded as I  was, I could not forbear going on with these Reflections, when one of these Reapers approached within ten Yards of the Ridge where I lay, made me apprehend that within the next Step I should be squashed to Death under his Foot, or cut into two with his Reaping-hook....He considered a while with the Caution of one who endeavours to lay hold on a small dangerous Animal in such a manner" etc. etc. etc.

1) MADAGASCAR: Cf. Skt. roots MAD, "I"; ADD, "attack; AD, "endeavor"; GA, go, move"; AS, "scare"; CAR, "go on with". To tell the truth, in the course of my researching the word MADAGASCAR, I encountered other Sanskrit words which I neglected to write down because, at that time, I considered them to be unimportant. Truth is, this paragraph probably involves 15-20 Sanskrit words. I just do not want to have  to do the research over again. I made my point.


    2-1-11: "When Dinner was almost done, the Nurse came in with a Child of a Year old in her Arms, who immediately spied me, and began a Squall you might have heard from LONDON-BRIDGE to CHELSEA, after the usual Oratory of infants, to get me for a Play-thing. The Mother out of pure Indulgence took me up, and put me towards the Child, who presently seized me by the Middle, and got my Head in his Mouth, where I roared so loud that the Urchin was frighted, and let me drop, and I should infallibly have broke my Neck if the Mother had not held her Apron under me. the Nurse to quiet her Babe made use of a Rattle, which was a kind of hollow Vessel filled with great Stones, amd fastened by a Cable to the Child's Wast [sic]: But all in vain, so that she was forced to apply the last Remedy, by giving it suck. I must confess no Object ever disgusted me so much as the Sight of her monstrous Breast, which I cannot tell what to compare with, so as to give the curious Reader an idea of its Bulk, Shape and Colour....The Nipple was was about half the Bigness of my Head, and the Hew both of that and the Dug so varied with Spots, Pimples, and Freckles, that nothing could appear more nauseous: This made me reflect upon the fair Skins of our ENGLISH  Ladies who appear so beautiful to us, only because they are of our own size, and their Defects not to be seen but through a Magnifying=glass, where we find by Experiment, that the smoothest and whitest Skins look rough and coarse and ill-coloured".
1) LONDON: LANDRA, "London". To tell the truth, I do not see how Sanskrit would have a word for "London" since this language went out of use circa 300 A.D., and I doubt if the Hindus knew at the time about London, which was, probably, called by some other, dissimilar name in England. Monier-Williams says it came from French. 
2) BRIDGE: BHRI, "carry"; BHRII, "injury, fear";  RII, "release, drop"; RIJ, "acquire, get (hold of)".
3) CHELSEA: CHAL, "shake, agitate" (cf. "to rattle"); SHI, "bestow upon, give to".
4) ENGLISH: ENAA, "in this fashion"; GLA, "feel dislike/aversion, cause to feel faint"; ISH, "be considered/regarded as"; ISH., "proclaim, deliver a speech”.

   2-2-1: "She gave me the Name of GRILDRIG, which the family took up, and afterwards the whole Kingdom. The Word imports what the LATINS call NANUNCULUS, the ITALIANS HOMUNCELETINO, and the ENGLISH MANNIKIN. To her I chiefly owe my Preservation in that Country; we never parted while I was there. I called her my GLUMDALCLITCH, or little Nurse: And I should be guilty of great Ingratitude if I omitted this honourable Mention of her Care and Affection towards me, which I heartily wish it lay in my Power to requite as she deserves, instead of being the unhappy Instrument of her Disgrace, as I have too much Reason to fear."
1)  LATIN : Uncertain.
2)  NANUNCULUS : NA, "knowledge,  bad man"; NA, "empty, jewel, ";  UU, "compassion,"; NU, "move from the place"; NU, "praise"; NUNNA, "driven away"; UN'KH, "move"; UUNA, "deficient"; KU, "reproach, prefix of deterioration, guilt"; KUU, "moan"; KUU, "striving to get anywhere"; KUL, "behave as kinsman, proceed without interruption";  LUU, "sever, cause to destroy";  USH, "chastise".
3) MANNIKIN:  MANI-KAANANA, “grove of jewels”. Okay, so technically I have nothing to base this on, but it is romantic and within the scope of their relationship.
: E, "interjection of censure, compassion"; E, "submit, fall to one's share"; ENAS, "offense, unhappiness, misfortune, blame": GLAI, "fade away, despond"; LII, "vanish"; IISH, "escape".  He makes mention of escaping later on and eventually leaves.
: II, "interjection of  pain, article of perception/consideration"; I, "interjection of sorrow, distress, compassion";  ITA, "gone,  TAL, be disturbed"; I, “go"; AN, "go".
6) GLUMDALCLITCH: I do not know.

7)  HOMUNCELETINO: No such word exists in Italian. Therefore we can assume that the author created  it for a purpose: HO, "vocative particle used in calling"; OM, "sound of respectful assent ('yes, so be it')"; MU[NJ]CH, "go, be wicked";  UUNA, "deficient"; E, "particle of censure"; E, "fall to one's share"; LETH, "be a rogue"; IN, "to advance on; remove"; O, reminiscence".  At the start of 2-8-5, Gulliver mentions this: "How often did I then wish my self with my dear Glumdalclitch, from whom one single Hour had so far divided me! And I may say with Truth, that in the midst of my own Misfortune, I could not forbear lamenting my poor Nurse, the Grief she would suffer for my loss, the Displeasure of the Queen, and the ruin of her Fortune." This section of the book occurs at the end of Part 2, when Gulliver leaves.



  2-3-1: "The frequent Labours I underwent every Day made in a few Weeks a very considerable Change in my Health:...I had quite lost my Stomach, and was almost reduced to a Skeleton. The Farmer observed it, and concluding I soon must dye, resolved to make as good a Hand of me as he could. While he was thus reasoning and resolving with himself, a SLARDRAL, or Gentleman Usher came from Court, commanding my Master to carry me immediately thither for the Diversion of the Queen and her Ladies...Her Majesty and those who attended her were beyond Measure delighted with my Demeanor. I fell on my Knees, and begged the Honour of kissing her imperial Foot; but this gracious Princess held out her little Finger towards me...which I embraced in both my Arms and put the Tip of it, with the utmost respect, to my Lip...She asked whether I would be content to live in Court. I bowed down to the Board of the Table, and humbly answered that I was my Master's Slave, but if I were at my own Disposal, I should be proud to devote my Life to her Majesty's Service. She then asked my Master whether he was willing to sell me at a good Price. He who apprehended I could not live a Month, was ready enough to part with me, and demanded a thousand pieces of Gold, which were ordered him on the spot, each piece being about the bigness of eight hundred Moydores, but allowing for the proportion of all Things between that country and EUROPE, and the high price of Gold among them, was hardly so great a sum as a thousand Guineas would be in ENGLAND."
1) SLARDRAL: Cf. Skt. roots S'LATHA, "weak, feeble"; S'LAAGH, "praise, flatter"; S'LIKU, "slave, person of low station"; S'LOK, "be composed of"; S'LAKHA, "a particular part of the body"; AR, "little"; AAR, "fetch, come, fall into (misfortune)"; AAR, "praise"; ARH, "have a claim to, be worth, be entitled to"; AARDH, "to wish to collect";  DHRI (root of DHRA) "undergo, belong to, resolve upon/quote (a price?), continue living,
to direct or turn (one's mind or attention) towards". (Here the author has directed his/our attention to Gulliver's mind: "...reported some strange Things of my Beauty, Behaviour, and good Sense. Her Majesty and those who attended her were beyond Measure delighted with my Demeanor"); RAA/RAI, "property, wealth, riches". I was unable to satisfactorily reconcile the final letter, "L". 
2) EUROPE: This is a mixture of factors found in 2-3-1 and 2-3-2: Skt. roots E, "contempt" (="coldness" for the farmer); U, "interjection of anger" (=hate for the farmer), "compassion" (="Care, Kindness"); UU, "particle of a promise to protect" (="Protection of a great Empress"); URAA, "sheep" (="Creature, Animal"); URU, “great" (="great"); RU, "dash to pieces, kill, be angry" (="kill, dashing out the Brains of a poor harmless Creature"); RU, "praise" (="Ornament of Nature, Darling of the World, Delight of her Subjects, Phoenix of the Creation"); RU, "fear" (="fear, Life in Danger"); RUP, "suffer pain" (="the Life I had since lead was laborious"); UPE, "befall, suffer" (the pain he suffered), "devote oneself to" (="admitted into her Service and continue to be my Nurse"), "approach a teacher, become a pupil" (="Instructor").
3) ENGLAND:  (from 2-3-2): "That the Life I had since led, was laborious enough to kill an Animal of ten times my Strength. That my Health was much impaired by the continual drudgery of entertaining the Rubble every hour of the Day, and that if my Master had not thought my Life in danger, her Majesty would not have got so cheap a Bargain." Cf. Skt. roots ENAA, "in this fashion"; GLAANA, "emaciated, languid, sick"; GLAANI, "depression of mind".

       2-3-4: "The Queen giving great Allowance for my Defectiveness in speaking, was however surprised at so much Wit and good Sense in so diminutive an Animal. She took me in her own Hands, and carried me to the King, who was then retired to his Cabinet. His Majesty, a Prince of much Gravity, and austere Countenance, not well observing my Shape at first View, asked the Queen after a cold manner, how long it was since she grew fond of a SPLACNUCK; for such it seems he took me to be, as I lay upon my Breast in her Majesty's right Hand. But this Princess, who hath an infinite deal of Wit and Humour, set me gently on my Feet upon the Scrutore, and commanded me to give His Majesty an Account of myself, which I did in in a very few Words..."
1) SPLACNUCK: This word is a good example of sneaky wordplay by Swift, in which he “stacks” Sanskrit words upon each other. However, it makes no sense unless you spell it backwards: KCUNCALPS.
Cf. Skt. roots KU, "prefix implying deficiency, smallness, contempt" [latter definition="cold manner"]. According to  A SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY, "originally perhaps KU signified 'How (strange!)'; KUNS"speak"; KUUN, "shorten"; KUN~CI (=KU[NJ]CI), "measure of capacity"=size; CUND, "perceive,"; CUND, "become small"; UUNA, "smaller, defective, less than the right quantity"; KUN, "converse with"; CHHAA, "a young [="small"] animal"; ALPA, "small, defective"; ALPA-MUURTI, "small bodied, diminutive"=ALPA-TANU.

     2-3-5: This paragraph is a continuance of   SPLACNUCK/KCUNCALPS above: "...yet when [the king] observed my Shape exactly, and saw me walk erect, before I began to speak, conceived I might be a Piece of Clockwork...contrived by some ingenious Artist. But when he heard my Voice, and found that what I delivered to be regular and rational, he could not conceal his Astonishment. He was by no means satisfied with the Relation I gave him of the manner I came into his Kingdom, but thought it a Story concerted between Glumdalclitch and her Father, who had taught me a Set of Words to make me sell at a higher Price. Upon this Imagination he put several other Questions to me, and still received rational Answers, not otherwise defective than by a foreign Accent and an imperfect Knowledge in the Language, with some rustick Phrases which I had learned"
1)  KCUNCALPS:: Basically, this is a repeat of the above paragraph, with the addition of these words interspersed:  KUH, "astonish by trickery"; CUND, "learn";  CAL, "become confused"; CHAL, "deceive, trick, fraud".

2-3-6:  The nobility and scientists of Brobdingnag are making scientific observation with regards to Gulliver, who is much smaller than they are. "These Gentlemen, after they had quite a while examined my Shape with much Nicety, were of different Opinions concerning me. They all agreed that I could not be produced according to the regular Laws of Nature...They could not  imagine how I should be able to support my self, unless I fed upon Snails and other Insects, which they offered, by many learned Arguments, to evince that I could not possibly do. One of these Virtuosi seemed to think that I might be an Embrio, or abortive Birth. But this Opinion was rejected by the other two, who observed my Limbs to be perfect and finished, and that I had lived several Years, as was manifest from my Beard, the Stumps whereof they plainly discovered through a Magnifying-Glass. They would not allow me to be a Dwarf, because my Littleness was beyond all Degrees of Comparison; for the Queen's favourite Dwarf, the smallest ever known in that Kingdom, was nearly thirty Foot high. After much Debate, they concluded unanimously that I was only RELPLUM SCALCATH, which is translated literally, LUSUS NATURAE ["jest or freak of Nature"=error?]; a Determination exactly agreeable to the modern Philosophy of EUROPE, whose Professors, disdaining the old Evasion of occult Causes, whereby the followers of ARISTOTLE endeavour in vain to disguise their Ignorance, have invented the wonderful Solution of all Difficulties, to the unspeakable Advancement of human Knowledge."
1) RELPLUM SCALCATH: Cf. Skt. roots RE, "particle of contempt"; EL, "a particular number"; PLU, "vanish by degrees"; LUMB, "be invisible";. SKHAL, "disappear, arrest/stop, err"; KATH, "live in distress";  KATH, "declare, describe, be regarded as, speak about, converse with, announce"; KATHAA, "how? why?"; KATTH, “revile”;  Whether the author intended for ALL of these words to be included is, of course, debatable. But the point is made.
2) EUROPE: E, "particle of censure, contempt"; YU, "ward off, exclude, drive/keep away"="evade"?; RUP, "inflict pain, confound",  akin to ROPA; RUP, "the Earth" (the people of it?).
3) ARISTOTLE:  ARI, "a devotee, follower"; ISHTA, "endeavored",  < ISH , "endeavor to obtain anything, regard as, endeavor to make favorable",  the latter definition of which may be the reference to "Advancement of human Knowledge";  TAL, “frustrate” (=”hinder, make difficult”).    

4) LUSUS NATURAE: LUH, "covet"; SUU, "good"="wonderful"; SUUSH, "procreate, beget, bring forth, produce"="invent"; USH, "chastise, criticize"; NA, used to imply "knowledge"; TURA < root TUR, "press forward"="advance"; E, "contempt, censure".

      2-3-7: Halfway down this paragraph, there appears the word LONDON. "[The king] desired the Queen to order that a particular Care should be taken of me...A convenient Apartment was provided for her at Court;...but the Care of me was wholly appropriated to her self. The Queen commanded her own Cabinet-maker to contrive a Box that might serve me for a Bed-chamber...The Room was [built] to prevent any Accident from the Carelessness of those who carried me...I desired a lock to prevent Rats and Mice from coming in."

1) LONDON:  Cf. Skt. roots LUU, "annihilate, destroy", akin to LUUNA, "wounded, injured";  ONI, "shelter, protection from misfortune"; DHUU, "shake off,  remove"="prevent"?; DUUNA < DUU, "pain".
   2-3-7 continues: "I desired a Lock for my Door to prevent the Rats  and  Mice from coming in: The Smith, after many Attempts, made the smallest that ever was seen among them, for I have known a larger at the gate of a Gentleman's House in ENGLAND. I made a shift to keep the Key in a Pocket of my own, fearing Glumdalclitch might lose it."

1A)ENGLAND: Cf. Skt. roots E, "befall"; ENAS, "misfortune"; GLA, "feel aversion, make desponding"; LAA, "undertake"; ANU, "small" < AN.
    2-3-7 Continues even more: "The Queen likewise ordered the thinnest Silks that could be gotten, to make me Cloaths not much thicker than an ENGLISH  Blanket, very cumbersome till I was accustomed to them. They were after the Fashion of the Kingdom, partly resembling the PERSIAN, and partly the CHINESE, and are a very grave and decent Habit."
1) ENGLISH: Cf. Skt. roots ENA. Grammarians assert that the substitution of ENA/ENAM for IMAM or ETAM takes place when something is referred to which has already been mentioned in a previous part of a sentence. It seems to be synonymous with likewise; GLAI, "dislike"; ISH, "make favorable, regard, be accepted, concede. In other words, it was bad at first, but he admitted it got better;  IISH, "command". To this equation I might add LISH, "be small"="be thin"?
2) CHINESE: Cf. Skt. CHIINA, "Chinese"; CHHINNA, "taken from, out of"="after the fashion of"; CHHIHNA, characteristic"="resembling".
3) PERSIAN: I was totally unable to get anywhere with this. There is mention of "partly Persian, partly Chinese", so maybe there is a mixture of the two that I do not see.


     2-3-10+11: Operative word: English. Gulliver says he is not in a condition to resent any injuries done to him, and he accepts that situation. He has become accustomed to the horror and lot of the people. He then sees a group of nobles strutting around in their fine clothes. He mentally ridicules them. He continues: "...the Queen used to place  me upon her Hand towards a Looking-Glass, by which both our persons appeared before me in full View together". This irritates him.

1)  ENGLISH:  E^, "submit, fall to one's share"; ENAS, "misfortune; blame"; GLAA/GLAI, "feel dislike;  GLESH, “investigate”=”looking-glass”.


      2-5-8: "One day, a young Gentleman, who was Nephew to my Nurse's Governess, came and pressed them both to see an Execution. It was  a Man who had murdered one of Gentleman's intimate Acquaintance. Glumdalclitch was prevailed upon to be of the Company, very much against her Inclination, for she was naturally tender-hearted: And, as for my self, although I abhorred such kind of Spectacles, yet my Curiosity tempted me to see something that I thought must be extraordinary. The Malefactor was fixed in a Chair upon a Scaffold erected fro the Purpose, and his Head cut off at a Blow with a Sword of about forty Foot long. The Veins and Arteries spouted up such a prodigious Quantity of Blood, and so high in the Air, that the great JETT D’EAU at VERSAILLES was not equal, for the Time it lasted; and the Head, when it fell on the Scaffold-Floor, gave such a as made me start, although I were at least half an ENGLISH Mile distant."
1) JETT D'EAU: From the French, "a jet or stream of water".
2) VERSAILLES: VAAR, "water"; VIR, "cut into pieces, divide asunder"; VERA, "body"; SAI (pronounced "sigh"), "decline". To this equation I "might" (slightly) add VE, "make into a web" (=? "scaffold", a quasi-weblike structure; S'AILI, "habit, custom" (Gulliver usually did not participate in this kind of thing); S'AILUSHA, "leader of a band (="Company"?), rogue". These last two would be the "sailles".
3) ENGLISH: ENAA, "in this fashion"; GLA, "feel dislike,  reluctance to do something, cause to perish"; ISH, "swing/cast/let fly, stream out"; ISH, "be requested (to do something?)"; IISH., "act likea master/person of authority, govern" (="Governess").

    2-7-11: "A CAVALIER mounted on a large Steed might be about Ninety Foot high. I have seen this Whole Body of Horse upon the Word of Command draw  their Swords at once, and brandish them in the Air. Imagination can Figure nothing so Grand, so surprising and so astonishing. It looked as if ten thousand Flashes of Lightning were darting at the same time from every Quarter of the Sky." Cf. Skt. roots CA, "moving to and fro"; KAV, "to praise, describe, paint, picture"; AV, "drive (a horse), defend"; AALI, "scorpion" (which wields its tail in the air to fight); ERU, "any person who moves".

      2-8-3:  "When we came to our Journey's End, the King thought proper to passed a few Days at a Palace he hath near FLANLASNIC a City within eighteen ENGLISH Miles of the Sea-side. Glumdalclitch [his lover] and I were much fatigued; I had gotten a small Cold, but the poor girl was so ill as to be confined to her Chamber. I longed to see the Ocean, which must be the only Scene of my Escape, if ever it should happen. I pretended to be worse than I really was, and desired Leave to take the fresh Air of the Sea, with a page whom I was very fond of, and who had sometimes been trusted with me. I shall never forget with what unwillingness Glumdalclitch consented, nor the strict Charge she gave the Page to be careful of me, bursting at the same time into a Flood of Tears..."
1) ENGLISH: Confer the following Sanskrit root words: ENA, "in this fashion"; GLA/GLAI, "be fatigued, languid"; ISH, "desire,  intend to do something, long for, concede/assent"; IISH,"escape"; ISH, "refreshing waters of the sky" (in a twisted sort of way="fresh Air of the Sea"); ISH, "discharge, stream out" (the tears); IISH, “behave like a ruler/king”. To this equation we can also add the following word-concepts which appear later on in this paragraph: ISH, "moving quickly" (="prodigious Speed"); IISHAA, "board" (="Two-Inch Board"); IISH, “command” (=”ordered”).

2) FLANLASNIC: There is no F-sound in Sanskrit, so consider, instead, F + LAN-LAS-NIC. What the author has done is take these three root syllables/words, then reverse their spellings (NAL-SAL-CIN), and incorporate them all into this paragraph: Cf. Skt. roots LAN'GH, "consume" (="devour"), "transport" (="the Boy took me out in my Box about half an hour Walk"), "escape from"; LAN'GA, "lover" (=Glumdalclitch); LAND, "toss up" (="I felt my Box very high in the Air"); LAS, "desire, long for"; NIICA, "dwarfish" (=Gulliver himself); S'AL, "exclamation used to express anything sudden" (="The first Jolt had like to have shaken me out of my Hammock...I called out several Times as loud as I could raise my Voice" and "awaked with a violent Pull"); SAL, "move" (="Motion"); NAL, "smell" (="Smell of this Bird"); CIN, "in compound form for CIT", which means "perceive, fix the mind on, be anxious about" (="perceive the woful [sic] Condition I was in"), "intend" (="Intent"); NALVA, a furlong which measures 1/8 of a mile (not the mentioned 18 miles).

     2-8-4+5: In this first paragraph there appears the word NIAGARA. In the next paragraph is this passage: "How often did I then wish my self with my dear Glumdalclitch, from whom one single Hour had so far divided me! And I may say, with Truth, that in the midst of my own Misfortunes I could not forbear lamenting my poor Nurse, the Grief she would suffer for my Loss, the Displeasure of the Queen, and the ruin of her Fortune. Perhaps many Travellers had not been under greater Difficulties and Distress than I was at this Juncture, expecting every Moment to see my Box dashed in Pieces, or at least overset by the first violent Blast, or a rising Wave.
1) NIAGARA: NI, "incur, undergo the nature of something"; NII, "bring into any condition, inflict pain, punishment"; AAGA, "transgression, offense"; AAR, "fall into misfortune, injure"; AA, "particle of reminiscence, pain, compassion."



      3-1-6+7: "I observed among them a DUTCHMAN, who seemed to be of some Authority, though he was not a Commander of either Ship. He knew us by our Countenances to be ENGLISHMEN, and jabbering to us in our own Language, swore we should be tied Back to Back, and thrown into the Sea. I spoke DUTCH tolerably well; I told him who we were, and begged him, in consideration of our being Christians and Protestants, of neighboring Countries, in strict Alliance, that he would move the Captains to take some pity on us. This inflamed his Rage; he repeated his Threatenings, and, turning to his Companions, spoke with great Vehemence, in the JAPANESE language, as I suppose, often using the Word CHRISTIANOS. The largest of the two Pyrate Ships was commanded by the JAPANESE Captain, who spoke a little DUTCH, but very imperfectly. He came up to me, and after several Questions, which I answered in great Humility, he said we should not die." At this point, Gulliver makes derogatory comments to the DUTCHMAN, which he soon regrets. It is that a punishment must be inflicted, so they are set adrift in a canoe with paddles.
1A) ENGLISHMAN: Cf. Skt. roots ENAA, "in this fashion"; ENA, "this"; GLESH, "investigate" (=ask questions); MANU, "man".
1B) ENGLISHMAN: ENAA, "in this fashion"; GLA, "dislike, cause to perish"; ISH, "to request, ask something from someone"; IISH, be master of something (=being the captain), command, allow"; IISHAA, "pole/shaft (="paddle"?), board, plank (walk the plank?); MANU, "man".
2) DUTCHMAN: DUCCHUNA, "misfortune, harm, personified demon"; MANU, "man".
3) DUTCH: DU, "cause pain, inflict distress"; DHUU, "treat roughly"; UCH, "take pleasure in".
4) JAPANESE: JAAPANA, "rejection, dismissing". JAAPANA is akin to the idea of expelling or discharging from something. The English word reject derives from the Latin word meaning "throw back, over", while dismissing implies "sending away".; IISH, "command, be master of something" (the ship). To this I am adding JAPATI, "to mumble something in a low voice, implying blame", for the way in which Gulliver answered in humility.
5) CHRISTIANS:  KRII, "throw, throw off from"; IISH, "command"; TYAJ, "abandon"; NU/NAU, "ship".  In other words, the captain orders them to be put off the ship and abandoned.
     Asimov writes on page 142: “By 1600, Japan as a nation, had gone into strict seclusion…An anti-Christian campaign was strenuously carried out and by 1640 the Japanese islands were cleansed of western religion…All foreigners were expelled, except for some Dutch traders, who were allowed to remain on the small island of Deshima…Japan, however, as part of its isolation policy, forbid it population to leave the island and put an end to the building of ships large enough to make sea voyages. The very existence of a Japanese captain on the open seas is therefore unrealistic”.

      3-1-12+13:  A number of people come together, and the flying island that Gulliver is on is moved and raised up from where he stands. He then puts himself into a most “supplicating position” in his most humble accent, but receives no answer. Those nearest to him seemed to be People off Distinction. They confer, often looking at him. They call to him in a dialect not unlike Italian. He returns an answer, but they cannot understand each other, but it is obvious he is in distress. They call, saying he should come down from where he is and go towards the shore. The flying island is raised, so he is drawn up in a seat fastened to the bottom to which he is fixed. He is then drawn up by pulleys. Cf. Skt. I, “calling, interjection of distress”; I, ”go towards, arise from,  reach, approach with prayers”;     IT/IT, “going towards”; ITA, “obtained”; ITVAN, “ going”, apparently synonymous with AGRETVAN < AGRA, “foremost”; IITI, “distress”;  TAL, “accomplish, establish, fix”; TALA, “level surface, base”; YAA, “proceed, walk”; YAANA, “journey, walking?”.  


     3-2-4+5: “After my Company withdrew, and a Person was sent to me by the king’s Order, attended by a FLAPPER. He brought with him Pen, Ink, and Paper and three or four Books; giving me to understand by Signs, that he was sent to teach me the language”. Since Sanskrit has no f-letter or f-sounder, consider F + LAPPER: LAP, “talk”, + PERU, “delivering”. This flapper is to instruct Gulliver in the  LAPUTA language.   He says LAP in in the old language means "high" (="big"?) and UNTUH, "governor". and that it derives from LAPUNTUH (Cf. Skt. LAP, "talk"; PUUTA, "pure" (="real"?); PUTA, "buttocks, ass"; UUNA, "defective"; TUH. "pain").
    Gulliver doubts this etymology and suggests, instead, QUASI LAP OUTED and defines it. However, he then says he will not intrude upon the discreet reader, thereby suggesting some sort of obscenity. Cf. KVA, "where"; KVAN..."sound"; SII, "word used in learning letters"; SII, "draw a straight line"; SIITAA, "furrow, track, line, row"; LAP, "talk" (I could not figure out OUTED).  So if you look near (draw a straight line) in the vicinities of the words LAP, PUTA, PUUTA, UUNA, and TUH, you will find mention of some of the concepts and items mentioned in paragraphs 4 and 5 (e.g., musical instrument). He  mentions alphabetical order and organizing thing in columns/rows. More analysis of this section is necessary.   


     3-3-9: MARS is mentioned in this section, which contains or implies certain concepts or actions represented by the following Sanskrit words starting with the root MAR-: MARA, "death, Earth (Earth is considered a "dying place"); MARAALA, "tender" (represented by the Eng. words TENDERNESS, GENTLENESS); MARU, "rock"; MARUCII/MARUNDHA, "name of a town" (TOWN); MARUNDA, "name of a prince and a dynasty" (PRINCE); MAARA, "disease"; MARYAA, "limit, boundary (LIMIT, EXTENT); MARMARIKA, "wicked man" (the King); MARDA, "destroying (DESTROYED, GREAT DAMAGE), pressure (PRESS A CITY TO RUBBISH), pounding (PELTING, ROOFS OF THEIR HOUSES ARE BEATEN TO PIECES); MARMAN, "vulnerable spot"; MARB, "move" (MOTION of the moving island); MARKARA, "hole, hollow (CELLAR, BOWELS, BASIN), barren woman (TILL SHE IS PAST CHILD-BEARING); MAARTANDA, "sun"; MARAKATA, "emerald" (LOADSTONE? STONE). The word MARS itself can be divided thus: MA, "first person" (“I” is the first word in this chapter); MA, "moon, measure (units of distance), authority (the king), light (SUN), death, water (RAIN), magic formula" (there is a formula of sorts depicting the unique characteristics of the Flying Island); ARSHA, "damage".

      3-4-9: "This Lord MUNODI was a Person of the first Rank, and had been some Years Governor of Lagado; but by a Cabal  of Ministers was discharged for Insufficiency. However the king treated him with Tenderness as a well-meaning Man, but of low  contemptible Understanding"; Cf. Skt. MUH, "be bewildered"; UUNA, "deficient, inferior"; NO, "not"; O, "particle of addressing, calling someone, compassion"; NODYA, "be forced to be removed"; DII, "be admired".


     3-7-8:”Next I saw HANNIBAL passing the ALPS, who told me he had not a Drop of Vinegar in his Camp."

1) HANNIBAL: Cf. Skt.   HAA, "be wanting, refrain from"; ANNA, "food, water". Vinegar is a watery food;  BAL, "hoard";   ALPA, "trifling quantity".


    3-8-1: "Having a Desire to see those Ancients, who were most  renowned for Wit and Learning, I set apart one Day on purpose. I  proposed that HOMER and ARISTOTLE might appear at the Head of all their Commentators; but those were so numerous, that some Hundreds were forced to attend in the Court and  outward rooms of the Palace. I knew and could distinguish those two Heroes at first Sight, not only from the Croud, but from each other. HOMER was the taller and  comelier Person of the two, walked very erect for one of his Age, and his Eyes were the most quick quick and piercing I ever beheld. ARISTOTLE  stooped much, and made use of a Staff. His Visage was meager, his Hair lank and thin, and his Voice hollow."  There is also mention of horror and a ghost.
1)HOMER: Cf. Skt. HO, "vocative particle used in calling a person"; OM, “sound of praise”;     ERU, "one who moves".
2) ARISTOTLE:  A, “prefix, used in comparison or negative, contrary sense";   RIH, “praise”; RISH, “glide with quick motion”; RISHI, “learned sage”;   A-RISHTA, "unhurt"; TU, "be strong, go". A verb form of this word implies "injure"; TUL, "compare".  In other words: “not unhurt, not moving quickly, not strong”.

    3-8-3: "I spent five Days in conversing with many others of the antient [sic] Learned. I saw most of the ROMAN Emperors. I prevailed on the Governor to call up ELIOGABALUS’S  Cooks to dress us a Dinner; but they could not shew us much of their Skill, for want of Materials. A HELOT  of  AGESILAUS made us a dish of SPARTAN  Broth, but I was not able to get down a second Spoonful".
1) ROMAN: Cf. Skt. ROMANTHA, "chewing, ruminating (cud)”.
2) SPARTAN: Cf. Skt. SPARITRI, "one who causes pain; SPARSHA, “unpleasant feeling”; SPHAR, "open widely, bend, discharge"; TANS, "pour out, be distressed".

3) I had trouble with  ELIOGABALUS and AGESILAUS and HELOT.  Other languages are probably involved.

     3-9-4: "There is indeed another Custom, which I cannot altogether approve of. When the King hath a Mind to put any of his Nobles to Death in a gentle indulgent Manner; he commands to have the Floor strowed  [sic] with a certain brown Powder, of a deadly composition, which being licked up infallibly kills him [eventually] in twenty-four Hours. But in Justice to his Prince's great Clemency, and the Care he hath of his Subjects Lives..., it must be mentioned for his Honour, that strict Orders are given to have the infected Parts of the Floor well washed after every such Execution  The operative word, in this scenario, is TRALDRAGDUBH.
1) Cf. Skt. TRAA, "defender"; RAALA, "a resin"; AALA, "poisonous discharge"; DRAAGH, "extend, torment"; RAGH, "taste"; RAAGA, "a coloring"; DUH, "bad"; DUU, "pain"; UBH, "kill".
2) There also seems to be a possible secondary, sub-plot involved, intended to be sarcastic or ironic. Consider adding these words into the equation: DRAA, "hurry, hasten"; RAGHU, "speedily" (hardly!); RAAGH, "efficient" (hardly!).
     The same paragraph concludes: "...which if his Domesticks neglect, they are in Danger of incurring his Royal Displeasure. I my self heard him give Directions, that one of his Pages should be whipt, whose Turn it was to give Notice about washing the Floor after an Execution, but maliciously had omitted it; by which Neglect a young Lord of great Hopes coming to an Audience, was unfortunately poisoned, although the King at that Time had no Design against his Life. But this good Prince was so gracious, as to forgive the Page his Whipping, upon Promise that he would do so no more, without special Orders." The operative word is   TRILDROGDRIB.   Cf. Skt. TRII, "escape, live through";  ILA, "refreshing drink"; IIL, "implore"; DROGHA, "malicious words"; DRIBH, "fear"; DHRI, "continue living"; RIBH, "praise";  RII, "interjection of horror, particle of reproach, warding off"; RI, "hurt";  RI, "set free"; IBHA, "servant". 

     3-10-1: This chapter start out thus: "The Luggnaggians are a polite and generous People, and although they they are not without some Share of that Pride which is peculiar to all Eastern Countries, yet they shew themselves courteous to Strangers, such as those who are countenanced by the Court. I had many Acquaintances among persons of the best Fashion, and being always attended by my Interpreter, the Conversation we had was not disagreeable."

1)      LUGGNAGGIANS: Cf. Skt. roots LUH, "covet"; GAA, “singing’;  GNAA, “speech”, akin to GNAAVAS, “words of praise”;  GIIH, "in compound form for GIR, 'praising,  addressing; AN, “sound".

2)      EASTERN: E, “compassion, addressing”; STU, “praise”; UURNU, “great, much”.

      3-10-2:  This is a continuation of 3-10-1. In this paragraph, Gulliver talks about the Struldbruggs, the Immortals, whom he has never seen. This appellation is applied to a  mortal's child; this special child is born with an unremovable red mark on the forehead above the eyebrow.  Later in life, it grows  and changes from green to blue, then to black. However, Gulliver concludes that "these Productions were not peculiar to any Family, but a mere Effect of Chance; and the  Children of the STRULDBRUGGS themselves were equally mortal..."

1) STRULDBRUGGS: Cf. Skt.  STU , "praise";  RU, "praise";  RUC, "be beautiful, good";    ULAD, ""reject";   BRUVA, "calling oneself by a name without any real title";  BHRUU, "eyebrow"; BHRUUNA, "child";   RU, "kill";  RUG, "injuring", implying that they can be hurt or killed..